Again in the study of mathematical logic, how to differentiate a modus ponens proposition from a modus tollens ?
Again in the study of mathematical logic, how to differentiate a modus ponens proposition from a modus tollens ?
Modus ponens and modus tollens are ways of solving logical implications. A logical implication is a clause in the following form:
And it means:
If p is true, then q is also true.
Modus ponens occurs when we have this:
What it means:
If p is true, then q is also true. p is true.
And so, the logical consequence is:
q is true.
And so, modus ponens is defined this way:
p
q -----
∴ q
modus tollens occurs when we have this:
p → q
¬ q
What it means:
If p is true, then q is also true. q is false.
And so, the logical consequence is:
p is false.
The reason for this is because if p is true, then q would also have to be true. But since q is false, then it is not possible that p is true, so p can only be false.
And so, modus tollens is defined as follows:
p → q
¬ q
-----
∴ ¬ p
So, the main way to differentiate is that: