I may be wrong, but I do not think it exists. The term is generic. There are good and bad definitions out there. This looks pretty reasonable.
In fact, you would need to define what a database is, and then look for a distinction. What most people think is a database is probably too specific a definition and only applies to a part of what can be considered a database. The definition found in Wikipedia is pretty bad because it tends towards a very specific database form.
It's not quite a term, but if you want to name it yourself, call it "program to access / manipulate database". Who knows "program headed for database"? Depending on the context (it does not seem to be the one used in the question) it can be "database manager program", or simply "database software".
I think the name will depend more on what it actually does and not why it accesses the database. It is difficult because, in general, access to the database is even a secondary activity, it is a means to reach the end. And what's important to define the type of program is the purpose of it.
Although it may be very strange and almost unfeasible, some programs that are expected to always work with databases can work without them and achieve the same end.
I'd rather give a name of ERP, CMS, DNA Analyzer, or something like that, it's more significant than saying that it accesses a database.
The so-called "database manager" would be a program whose end purpose is to manipulate the database - possibly to assist other programs - so it is easier to give a name for him. I do not know if that's a good name, but it's pretty much used.
It is common, but not mandatory, for more than one program to be responsible for manipulating a database. Of course, more complex databases tend to do more.
Note the difference between program and solution / complete system.
Well, that seems to me to be of little relevance. It may seem precious to me what I am responding to, but just finding a term for it only fits into the most academic field.
Anyway, it would be cool if anyone knows anything more specific, I doubt it.